Thought I would run this by again to see if anyone has a provable alternative. I apologize for the superscripts and subscripts but I don't know how to show them in the AMG format.
We are all familiar with Einstein’s theory of relativity and its representative equation E = mc2. As written it can only be true if you believe someone or something created the universe because written in this fashion E-mc2 = 0 means there is no universe and no something or someone to have created it. Einstein himself probably did not believe it because if he had touted this hypothesis he would have been branded a heretic as other scientists who posited theories that did not conform to the accepted dogma of the time.
Einstein’s problem was he could not at the time reveal the truth even if he knew it because there was no way to test his theory at the time because of the impossibility of proving a negative. Fortunately for Einstein a part of his theory has proven correct as we have discovered how to destroy matter by splitting the atom and creating matter by applying at least a portion of that energy in sufficient concentration at elevated temperatures to convert pure carbon into diamond form. Einstein was still alive when both of these feats were accomplished but merely positing the fact that E-mc2= 0 still mystified him or, perhaps not.
What is missing in Einstein’s equation are the two terms that make not only a rational formulation but part of the explanation of the universe itself. That equation is Et1=mc2t2 where E is energy, m is mass c2 is the constant (the speed of light squared) and t is temperature. T, or time is the same on either side and thus cancels out. In the latter case, it is the temperature of the energy or surrounding space (t1) and the temperature of the physical mass (t2). The resultant equation becomes Et1 = mc2t2. The foregoing presents the problem I believe confronted Einstein in his quest because when t1 = t2 no matter what t is, the sides become equal and the equation must equal zero and therefore there would be nothing. The only feasible explanation is that at some time t as t1 approaches t2 some event must occur that prevents this inequality. That something must either be akin to spontaneous combustion or what is akin to cooling a solution to such a temperature that the transformed portion precipitates out. The only logical explanation, since both are known to exist, i.e. energy and matter, that energy is the forth state of matter joining solid, liquid and gas.
The problem is we have now created a theory that cannot be proven completely since matter cannot be completely destroyed but only converted to energy. We have however come close; first with the atomic bomb, converting matter by stripping at least one atom from its composition and by cooling liquid nitrogen to where all motion seems to halt. Therefore, the only conclusion becomes we still don’t know for sure because we will not be around at time t when t1 = t2. The reason being time will have removed one of the necessities of life; CO2 or H2O just as it has on all of the heavenly bodies we have observed.
The statement there is no life on other planets is a negative and impossible to prove. What is easier to prove is that there was once life as we know it on all the heavenly bodies we observe in the universe but, has since vanished because conditions became unsuitable to sustain it.
What is it that sustains all life forms capable of reproducing themselves? The answer is carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and radiation. It is the latter that causes the combination of the three elements into forms suitable to sustain life namely, carbon dioxide CO2 and H2O. When I say radiation, I mean the entire spectrum, not just the part visible to the human eye we define as light. This clarification is necessary because microbial life forms have been discovered in the deepest part of the ocean where visible light does not penetrate. In the absence of any one of these and all life as we know it ceases. If the latter is true our observation of the universe to date has shown, not that life had never existed in other parts of the universe, but the likelihood of its existing now is very questionable.
If there is something, we are faced with the dilemma of how it came about. There can only be two possibilities; it always was or it was created from nothing. That it was created from nothing can be summarily dismissed as an impossibility leaving us with it always was. Since it is moving and constantly changing it must have something to do with time and temperature. If Einstein’s equation is modified to include this factor it becomes:
ET1t1 = mc2T2 t2
This implies a beginning and end, but t must be at least 1 since if it were 0 there would be nothing. As there cannot be an end we have to include all time which has been implied by the term ∞, or infinity. Infinity however is a term used to avoid the problem of notating extremely large numbers that by the time you add more zeros (0) to unity (1) by shifting the origin they become insignificant. The same is true for decimal fractions if you proceed in the opposite direction from a point of origin.
If our something that is moving has no beginning and no end it must be traveling in a circle and not a straight line. That circle cannot be infinite in respect to time. It can be so long as to be measured in light years and seem infinite. Given that it is moving and is also reducing in mass as its composition is changing there must be something that is changing and since it can only be an energy transfer, temperature must also be a factor.
If we take the temperature of everything at time present, we find the earth’s surface at varying times during the day we find it varying due to the effects of the sun’s radiant energy and the offsetting effect of the earth’s radiant energy from its hot core. As we move into the Atmosphere above the earth into the ionosphere and into Space the calculated temperature is about -270 degrees centigrade. These measurements over time confirm both motion and energy transformation over changing time.
But what occurs when T1 = T 2? The equation reverts to E = mc2 at time t∞. Since we have said this cannot occur if there is something, an instantaneous event must take place at that unknown time t = ∞ that converts some of the energy back into matter. It can only be explained by considering a fourth state of matter besides a gas, a liquid or a solid and can only be energy and is such that at the moment T1 = T2 resulting in the equation going to zero, an event takes place similar to the precipitation of a dissolved solid at a certain temperature. Does the Big Bang Theory come to mind?
Like bending light, the atomic bomb, the creation of artificial diamonds and the superconductivity at extremely low temperatures, there is just too much circumstantial evidence to dismiss the theory there was always something. But what about the religious theory that God created the heavens and earth in seven days?
God, or gods, are the creation of man to enable control of a society. If Adam had lived alone in the Garden and his survival was guaranteed by the bounty of nature surrounding him he would have no need to steal, for the simple reason he couldn’t know what stealing was until someone defined it for him. The very absurdity of the biblical tale has forced theologians into hypocrisy. It is what makes Islam currently popular as the Imams have no illusions and can still keep their flocks in line with threats of the present and the hereafter.
The father was the first god, behave yourself or your father will spank you and or, follow my law or you will be punished in the afterlife. The latter was needed because it became impossible for leaders of a family or tribe to even prevent unacceptable conduct. When this did not suffice, governments became gods to exact punishment on earth and still the lawlessness has not stopped because we have ignored the punishment meant to be meted out by both the Holy Bible, the Torah or the Qur’an and that is death to the miscreants who cannot govern themselves in order to purge the society of those who cannot. We have created these governments as a substitute and they have all failed miserably.